Terms of access: Whether the data is online or not, the agreement must determine who has what rights to access the data, who has what rights to modify or modify the data, and what methods apply to accessing the data. Data exchange also promotes accountability and transparency, allowing researchers to validate each other`s results. Finally, data from multiple sources can often be combined to allow comparisons across national and departmental boundaries. Note that the details of these agreements may have to reconcile differences in management with differences in business practices. For example, how does an agency protect its data and what access can it allow through firewalls and security checks? How will agencies inform each other if authorizations are changed? Which manager will be responsible for the specified data? If the partner is a foreign unit that does not accept compliance with U.S. law, the agreements must go through the USGS Office of International Programs. It is important to recognize that the process of establishing data exchange agreements between countries, as well as the nature of the data that is shared and the agencies that share the data together, are different. Data exchange agreements protect against data misuse and promote early communication between agencies on data processing and use issues. The manual chapter of the USGS Survey 500.26 – Domestic Memorandum of Understanding states: “If necessary, languages are included [in MOUs] such as: All data and information generated as a result of this agreement must be made available to the USGS as part of its current programmes. This includes, if necessary, the publication of the results, unless it is prohibited for well-founded protection and security reasons. The USGS cannot share or share data sets or data that are denominated: Below you will find a list of items that are usually included in a data sharing agreement. While this list may cover the databases, additional concerns may be relevant to a data set or supplier agency.
Ideally, these additional concerns should be taken into account in the data exchange agreement, in order to facilitate clear communication and, if necessary, provide additional safeguards: data exchange agreements are formal contracts detailing shared data and data that are appropriate for the data. Data exchange agreements must include access and dissemination provisions. It is not advisable to enter into a data exchange agreement in which data protection information can be disclosed, as non-federal organizations are not subject to the Data Protection Act. Similarly, the non-federal organization should be advised that federal authorities may be required to disclose information under the BLA. Data exchange is an important way to improve the ability of researchers, scientists and policy makers to analyze data and translate it into meaningful reports and knowledge. Data sharing avoids duplication in data collection and fosters differences in mentality and cooperation, as others are able to use the data to answer questions that initial data collectors may not have taken into account. A data exchange agreement is a formal contract that clearly documents what data is disclosed and how the data can be used.